One hundred and eighty five species of fish belonging to 11 orders have been recorded from Nepal. Eight endemic fish species are found in Nepal. Small populations of an exotic species Rato Macha (Carrasius carrasius) have become naturalized in the ponds of Nepal. The number of fish species found in river systems is related to the temperature and the rate of flow. The warmer the climate and the gentler the flow, the higher the number of fish species. All the 11 orders of fish reported from Nepal are found in Terai and Siwaliks, eight in the Midhills and only one in the highlands. The highest number of fish species – 154 species (83%) are found in the Terai/Siwaliks followed by 76 (41%) of the species in the Midhills and only six (3%) of the species of fish have been recorded in the Highlands. The low number of fish occurring at high altitudes is due to the prevalent adverse ecological conditions such as steep gradient of the streams and the cold temperatures.

1. Mahasheer/ Sahar Tor putitora 2.5 m 50 kg Large and deep rivers fish Mar. – May./Oct. – Dec
2. Deep Bodied Mahasheer Tor tor 3m 50 kg Large and deep rivers fish Mar. – May/Oct – Dec
3. Copper Mahasheer / Katle Acrossocheilus hexagonolepis .6m 5 kg Large and deep river Fish and meat Mar- June / Sep. – Nov.
4. Fresh Water Shark /Gounch Bagarius bagarius 3m + 100 kg+ Large and Deep rivers Fish Mar. – May/Oct – Dec.
5. Jalkapoor Clupisoma gaura 0.5m 1 kg Large and deep rivers Worms and meat Mar. May/Oct. Dec
6. Fresh Water Eel /Raj Bam Anguilla bengalensis 3m 18 kg River and pools Frogs and worms Mar – May/ Oct. – Dec.
7. River Catfish / Bachawa Silondia silondia 0.5m 2.5 kg River confluence Worms and meat Mar – May/ Oct. – Dec
8. Giant Murrel / Saur Channa maurilus 2.5m 15 kg River, stream and lakes Worms , fish and insects Feb. – May/Oct to Dec
9. Mud Eel / Hile Bam Amphipnous (Monopterus) cuchia 0.8m 1.5 kg River, stream, lakes and swamps Meat Feb. – Apr.
10. Feather Back / Patali Notopterus notopterus River, streams and lakes Worm, insects and meat Feb. – May / Sept – Dec
11. Knife Fish / Chitala Notopterus chitala 8 kg River, streams and lakes Worms , insect and meat Feb. – May / Sept – Dec
12. Catfish / Buari Wallago attu 1.8 m 12 kg River, streams and lakes Fish, insects and meat Feb. – June/Sept. – Nov.
13. Tenger Catfish / Tengri Mystus seenghala 0.4 m River streams Fish, insects and meat Jan – June/Sept. – Nov
S. No. Common / Local Name Scientific Name Size weight Habitat Bait Season


1. Flying barb Esomus danricus Masheer and Catfish
2. Sucker Head Garra gotyla Masheer
3. Singhe Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis Catfish, Fresh Water Shark ‘Buster’
4. River Barb Puntius chilinoides Copper Masheer
5. Gravel Catfish Glyptothorax telchitta Masheer
6. Torrent Minnow Barilius sps Masheer

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